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Persuasion is one of the leader's essential tools
 

        If leadership, at its most basic, consists of getting things done through others, then persuasion is one of the leader's essential tools. Many executives have assumed that this tool is beyond their grasp, available only to the charismatic and the eloquent. Over the past several decades, though, experimental psychologists have learned which methods reliably lead people to concede, comply, or change. Their research shows that persuasion is governed by several principles that can be taught and applied.
 

        The first principle is that people are more likely to follow someone who is similar to them than someone who is not. Wise managers, then, enlist peers to help make their cases. Second, people are more willing to cooperate with those who are not only like them but who like them, as well. So it's worth the time to uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise.
 

        Third, experiments confirm the intuitive truth that people tend to treat you the way you treat them. It's sound policy to do a favor before seeking one. Fourth, individuals are more likely to keep promises they make voluntarily and explicitly. The message for managers here is to get commitments in writing. Fifth, studies show that people really do defer to experts. So before they attempt to exert influence, executives should take pains to establish their own expertise and not assume that it's self-evident. Finally, people want more of a commodity when it's scarce; it follows, then, that exclusive information is more persuasive than widely available data.
 
 

說服就是領導
 

[參考譯文]如果領導說到底就是讓別人做事,那麼說服就是領導者的主要手段之一。很多經理人都認為自已沒有掌握這個手段,只有那些有魅力和口才的人才能駕馭它。然而,透過過去幾十年的研究,試驗心理學家掌握了能夠使他人讓步、服從和改變的可靠方法。他們的研究表明,說服是有原則可循的,人們可以學習並應用這些原則。
 

    第一條原則是,人們願意服從與自己有共同之處的人。因此明智的經理會選擇同類人與自己共事。第二,人們更願意與不僅與自己相類似而且欣賞自己的人合作。所以,下功夫尋找真正的相同點以及給人以真誠的讚揚是值得的。
 

    第三,試驗證實了'你如何待人,人如何待你'這一直觀事實。先助人後求助是良策。第四,每個人一般都會信守自願而明確做出的承諾。這裡經理人得到的提示是要獲得書面承諾。第五,研究表明人們的確願意服從專家的領導。因此,在試圖發揮影響力之前,經理人應該努力確立自己的專家信譽,不要認為這是不言而喻的。最後一條原則是,人們對稀缺商品有更大的需求,所以獨家資訊比廣為人知的數據更具說服力。
 

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